Plastic Surgery

Breast reduction research

Breast reduction research

Breast reduction is a surgical procedure conducted to reduce the size and weight of the breasts. It is a common procedure that is mostly taken up by women who want to alleviate the physical and emotional discomfort that comes with having overly large breasts. Breast reduction surgery can also be performed on men who have a condition known as gynecomastia, which causes them to develop breast tissue. This article aims to provide comprehensive information about breast reduction and the research surrounding it.

Benefits of Breast Reduction Surgery

Breast reduction surgery has multiple benefits, both physical and emotional. Some of the benefits include:

  1. Relief from physical discomfort: Women with overly large breasts often experience physical discomfort like back pain, neck pain, and shoulder pain. Breast reduction surgery can alleviate these symptoms and improve overall comfort.
  2. Improved mobility: Women with large breasts may find it challenging to exercise or participate in physical activities. Breast reduction surgery can improve mobility and ease physical activities.
  3. Better posture: Overly large breasts can cause poor posture and spinal curvature. Breast reduction surgery can help correct these issues and improve posture.
  4. Increased self-confidence: Women with large breasts may feel self-conscious about their appearance or experience unwanted attention. Breast reduction surgery can boost self-confidence and improve body image.
  5. Improved clothing options: Women with large breasts may find it challenging to find clothes that fit or feel comfortable. Breast reduction surgery can expand clothing options and improve overall style.

How Breast Reduction Surgery is Performed

Breast reduction surgery is usually performed under general anesthesia and takes about 3 to 5 hours. The surgical procedure involves several steps:

  1. Marking the incisions: The surgeon will make markings on the breast to indicate where the incisions will be made.
  2. Incisions: The incisions are made according to the markings and can be made in different patterns depending on the surgeon’s preference or the desired outcome. Common incision patterns include the anchor, lollipop, and donut.
  3. Removal of excess breast tissue: The surgeon will remove excess breast tissue, fat, and skin to reduce the size and weight of the breasts.
  4. Nipple and areola repositioning: The nipple and areola will be repositioned higher on the breast to achieve a more natural look.
  5. Closing the incisions: The incisions will be closed with sutures or adhesive strips, and the breasts will be wrapped in a surgical garment to aid in healing and reduce swelling.

After the surgery, patients are usually required to stay in the hospital overnight for monitoring. Recovery time typically takes 2 to 4 weeks, during which time patients are advised to rest and avoid strenuous activities.

Possible Risks and Complications of Breast Reduction Surgery

As with any surgical procedure, breast reduction surgery carries certain risks and possible complications. Some of the possible risks and complications include:

  1. Infection: The surgical site can become infected, leading to prolonged healing and scarring.
  2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding can occur during or after the surgery, which may require additional procedures to address.
  3. Adverse anesthesia reaction: Allergic reactions to anesthesia can be severe and require immediate medical attention.
  4. Scarring: All surgical procedures leave scars, and breast reduction surgery is no exception. The extent and severity of scarring depend on several factors, including the patient’s age, genetics, and body type.
  5. Changes in breast sensation: Some patients may experience changes in breast sensation, including numbness, tingling, or hypersensitivity.
  6. Breastfeeding difficulties: Breast reduction surgery can interfere with the ability to breastfeed, especially if the milk ducts are damaged during the procedure.

It is essential to discuss these risks and possible complications with your surgeon before undergoing the procedure.

Candidates for Breast Reduction Surgery

Not everyone is a candidate for breast reduction surgery. Candidates should meet the following criteria:

  1. Physical symptoms: Candidates should have physical symptoms such as back pain, neck pain, and shoulder pain resulting from the size and weight of their breasts.
  2. Emotional discomfort: Candidates should experience emotional discomfort due to the size of their breasts, which affects their self-esteem, body image, and quality of life.
  3. Stable weight: Candidates should have a stable weight and be within a healthy weight range.
  4. Post-pregnancy period: Women who plan to have children should wait until after their pregnancy and breastfeeding period to undergo breast reduction surgery.
  5. Good overall health: Candidates should be in good overall health and not have any significant medical conditions that can increase the risk of complications during the surgery.

It is recommended to consult with a board-certified plastic surgeon to discuss candidacy and any concerns or questions about the procedure.

Non-Surgical Alternatives to Breast Reduction

For those who are not candidates for breast reduction surgery or wish to explore non-surgical alternatives, there are several options available, including:

  1. Exercise: Resistance training exercises that focus on the upper body can help reduce breast size and improve muscle tone in the chest area.
  2. Weight loss: Losing weight may reduce breast size in some individuals.
  3. Supportive bras: Wearing supportive bras can help alleviate physical discomfort caused by large breasts.
  4. Physical therapy: Physical therapy can help relieve physical symptoms by improving posture and strengthening the muscles that support the breasts.
  5. Medications: Some medications, like birth control pills and hormones, can help reduce breast size in some cases.

While these alternatives may help reduce breast size or alleviate physical symptoms, they may not be as effective as surgical breast reduction. It is essential to discuss these options with a medical professional to determine if they are appropriate for individual circumstances.

Research on Breast Reduction Surgery

Research on breast reduction surgery has focused primarily on the outcomes and effectiveness of the procedure. Some of the key findings from recent studies include:

  1. Physical symptoms improvement: Breast reduction surgery effectively improves physical symptoms such as back pain, shoulder pain, neck pain, and posture.
  2. Quality of life improvement: Breast reduction surgery also improves the quality of life and emotional well-being of patients.
  3. Permanent results: The results of breast reduction surgery are long-lasting and typically permanent.
  4. Minimal scarring: New techniques in breast reduction surgery result in minimal scarring and quicker healing times.
  5. Patient satisfaction: A high percentage of patients report being satisfied with the results of their breast reduction surgery.

In addition to these findings, research on breast reduction surgery is ongoing, and new techniques and advancements in the procedure are continually being developed to improve outcomes and reduce risks.

Recovery and Aftercare

After breast reduction surgery, it is essential to take proper care of the surgical site to promote healing and reduce the risk of infection. Some of the aftercare practices include:

  1. Pain management: Patients may experience pain and discomfort after surgery, and pain medications may be prescribed to manage pain.
  2. Rest: Patients are advised to get plenty of rest and avoid strenuous activities for several weeks after surgery.
  3. Compression garments: Patients will need to wear compression garments to reduce swelling and provide support to the breasts.
  4. Dressings and bandages: Patients will need to keep the surgical incisions clean and dry and change their bandages as instructed by their surgeon.
  5. Follow-up appointments: Patients will need to attend follow-up appointments with their surgeon to monitor healing progress and remove any sutures or staples.
  6. Scar management: Patients may be advised to use scar management techniques such as silicone sheets or creams to minimize scarring.

It is essential to follow all aftercare instructions provided by the surgeon to ensure proper healing and reduce the risk of complications.

Cost of Breast Reduction Surgery

The cost of breast reduction surgery can vary, depending on several factors, including the surgeon’s experience, location, and the extent of the procedure. The average cost of breast reduction surgery in the United States is approximately $6,000 to $12,000, but the cost can be higher in some areas.

It is important to note that health insurance may cover part or all of the cost of breast reduction surgery if the surgery is deemed medically necessary due to physical symptoms such as back pain or other related conditions. It is recommended to contact the insurance provider to determine coverage and any associated costs or fees.

Patients should also factor in additional costs such as pre-surgery consultations, surgery facility fees, laboratory tests, anesthetic fees, and medications. It is crucial to discuss all costs and fees with the surgeon beforehand to understand the financial commitment involved.


Breast reduction surgery is a safe and effective procedure that can alleviate physical discomfort, improve quality of life, and boost self-confidence. It is essential to discuss candidacy, risks and complications, recovery and aftercare, and cost with an experienced plastic surgeon before the procedure.

Non-surgical alternatives to breast reduction surgery may be appropriate for some individuals and can provide relief from some physical symptoms, but may not be as effective as surgical breast reduction.

Ongoing research on breast reduction surgery aims to improve outcomes, reduce risks, and advance the field. With proper care, breast reduction surgery can yield long-lasting results and improve overall physical and emotional well-being.


  1. American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Breast Reduction. Accessed 17 August 2021.
  2. Mayo Clinic. Breast reduction surgery. Accessed 17 August 2021.
  3. American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Breast Reduction Research. Accessed 17 August 2021.
  4. US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. Long-term quality-of-life outcomes following breast reduction surgery: a multicenter prospective study. Accessed 17 August 2021.
  5. Healthline. Breast Reduction Surgery: Cost, Risks, and Recovery. Accessed 17 August 2021.

This page is not advice and is intended to be informational only. Consult your physician before undertaking any surgical procedures.

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